Légende du pendu dépendu - 1.    

 

                                           

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                       Santo Domingo de la Calzada, donde cantó la gallina después de asada

                                           (où la poule chanta, après avoir été rôtie)   

                                                         

  Depuis des siècles, un beau poulailler gothique à l'intérieur de la Cathédrale abrite une poule et un coq vivants, en souvenir du célèbre miracle, qu'Aymeric Picaud situe à Toulouse au début du XVe siècle, et que l'historien Huidobro narre ainsi:

 

  "Un couple d'Allemands, de Xanten, près de Wesel et Rees, dans l'Archevêché de Cologne, décident, en vertu d'une promesse, de se rendre en pèlerinage à Compostelle, accompagnés de leur jeune fils. Ils font une halte à Santo Domingo, étape du Chemin, et prient avec grande dévotion devant le glorieux sépulcre de l'église, renommé pour ses nombreux miracles. Fatigués par le voyage, ils se rendent dans une auberge, où ils restent deux jours. La fille de l'aubergiste tombe amoureuse du jeune homme, mais ce dernier repousse ses avances. Pour se venger, elle glisse, pendant son sommeil, une tasse en argent dans le bagage du jeune pèlerin, pour l'accuser postérieurement du vol".

 

  Le jeune est arrêté par le Juge, et pendu pour ce vol qu'il n'a pas commis. Les parents, arrivés à Compostelle, prient pour leur fils à Saint-Jacques. Sur le chemin du retour, ils trouvent leur fils pendu, mais encore vivant, grâce à l'intercession de l'Apôtre. Ils se rendent chez le Juge, pour lui raconter le miracle. Ce dernier, qui est sur le point de dévorer deux volailles (un coq et une poule), leur répond avec ironie: "Il est vivant, aussi vrai que ce coq et cette poule vont se mettre à chanter". Le coq et la poule sautèrent aussitôt hors du plat, et le coq chanta et la poule caqueta.

 

  De là le dicton populaire: "Santo Domingo de la Calzada, donde cantó la gallina después de asada" (où la poule chanta, après avoir été rôtie).

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                                      Leyenda del gallo y la gallina de Santo Domingo de la Calzada  

 

  Una de las leyendas más conocidas del Camino de Santiago es la que se cuenta que ocurrió en Santo Domingo de la Calzada.

 

  Cuenta la tradición que, entre los muchos peregrinos compostelanos que hacen alto en Santo Domingo de la Calzada para venerar las reliquias de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, llegó un matrimonio con su hijo de dieciocho años, llamado Hugonell, procedente de Ad Sanctos (Xanten en la diócesis de Munster, pero, hasta 1821, del Arzobispado de Colonia).

 

  La chica del mesón donde se hospedaron se enamoró del joven Hugonell, pero, ante la indiferencia del muchacho, decidió vengarse. Metió una copa de plata en el equipaje del joven, y cuando los peregrinos siguieron su camino, la muchacha denunció el robo al corregidor, Las Leyes de entonces (Fuero de Alfonso X el Sabio) castigaron con pena de muerte el delito de hurto, y una vez prendido y juzgado, el inocente peregrino fue ahorcado.

 

  Al salir sus padres camino de Santiago de Compostela fueron a ver a su hijo horcado y, cuando llegaron al lugar donde se encontraba, escucharon la voz del hijo que les anunciaba que Santo Domingo de la Calzada le había conservado la vida. Fueron inmediatamente a casa del Corregidor de la Ciudad y le contaron el prodigio

 

  Incrédulo el Corregidor les contestó que "su hijo estaba tan vivo como el gallo y la gallina asados que él se disponía a comer". En ese preciso instante el gallo y la gallina saltando del plato se pusieron a cantar. Y desde entonces se dicen los famosos versos:

 

  Santo Domingo de la Calzada, que cantó la gallina después de asada.

 

  En recuerdo de este suceso se mantienen en la Catedral un gallo y una gallina, vivos y siempre de color blanco, durante todo el año. Proceden de donaciones, y se realiza el cambio de las parejas cada mes. Frente a esta hornacina, que se construyó en 1445, y debajo de la ventana de la Catedral, se conserva un trozo de madera de la horca del peregrino.

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                                                                  Miracle of the Chickens

 

  The most famous miracle concerns that of the rooster and the chicken, which is said to have taken place at Santo Domingo de la Calzada. The story goes that in the 14th century, a German 18-year old named Hugonell, from Xanten, goes on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela with his parents. A Spanish girl at the hostel where they were staying makes sexual advances toward Hugonell; Hugonell rejects her advances. Angry at this, the girl hides a silver cup in the German’s bag and then informs the authorities that the youth had taken it. Hugonell is sentenced to the gallows, in accordance with the laws of Alfonso X of Castile.

 

  The parents sadly decide to examine their son’s body, still hanging on the gallows, but suddenly hear his voice – he tells them that Saint James has saved his life. His parents quickly make their way to Santiago de Compostela to see the magistrate. The magistrate, who is at the time eating dinner, remarks: "Your son is as alive as this rooster and chicken that I was feasting on before you interrupted me." And in that moment, the two birds jump from the plate and begin to sing and crow happily.

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  In the middle of the fourteenth-century, a family of great virtue and piety stopped to rest for a couple of days at an inn located in the then small village of Santo Domingo. This family consisted of a father, mother and their,sixteen-year-old son. During their short stay, the innkeeper’s daughter fell passionately in love with the young son. In the words of a sixteenth century travel writer, Andrew Boorde, “. . . she was a wenche whych wolde haue had hym to medyll with her carnally.” In other words, she wanted him for a lover. The young man, however, declined outright—he was, after all, on holy pilgrimage.

 

  The old saying, “Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned” in this situation turned out to be somewhat of an understatement! This troubled young lady was livid! Enraged beyond words at the boy’s rejection of her offering to bed him, the innkeeper’s daughter plotted the ultimate revenge. During the night before the family was planning to depart, she hid a silver goblet in the boy’s knapsack. Then, in the morning, just after the family had resumed their pilgrimage to Santiago, she told her father of the “theft” of the innkeeper’s silver.

 

  The local sheriff and his deputies then tracked the family down, and when they searched the hapless young man’s backpack, they did indeed find the silver goblet. As the falsely accused boy screamed and pleaded his innocence, he was mercilessly brought before the magistrate for the theft. The judge found him guilty of the crime and sentenced the boy to death by hanging. All the young man’s parents could do was stand by in abject horror as the wardens dragged their son to the gallows on outskirts of town, slip a noose over his neck, and then open the trapdoor beneath his feet. It was ordered that he be left dangling for a week as a stern reminder to all who passed of the penalty for being a thief.

 

  That evening just after the sun had gone down, the distraught parents returned to the site of their son’s execution to mourn him one last time before setting out to fulfill their obligation to complete their pilgrimage. They could do nothing else; the magistrate had issued the edict that he remain where he was. As they tearfully approached what they thought was their dead son’s body, they were confronted by a great surprise. Their boy was still alive!

 

  Still hanging from the gibbet by the rope around his neck, the boy, when he saw his tearful parents, calmly spoke to them. “Fear not, my dear father and mother,” he said. “Blessed St. James holds me in his arms as I now speak. Run, run! with all your might and tell the honorable judge that I’m still alive. St. James will perform a miracle!”

 

  Without a second’s hesitation, the father and mother rushed back into Santo Domingo to the home of the magistrate. After frantically knocking on his door for over a minute, they were finally let in to the inner courtyard, only to be informed by the judge’s servant that the justice was eating his evening meal and absolutely did not want to be disturbed. The determined parents, however, would not be deterred. Barging into the home, they quickly found the dining room.

 

  Prostrating themselves before the seated magistrate, they quickly told him of the miracle taking place involving their son. The judge, who was just about to begin cutting up the two roasted chickens he was about to eat as his dinner, rather than being annoyed —or even worse, downright pissed off —at this intrusion into his home, was moved by a sort of mocking compassion. Legend says that he looked the anxious parents directly in the eye and bluntly said to them as he pointed to his dinner plate, “My dear pilgrims, your boy can no more be alive than these chickens could get up right now and crow!”

 

  The words had no sooner sprung forth from the magistrate’s lips than the Good St. James performed his second miracle of the evening. Immediately, the two chickens, a rooster and a hen, came to life, squawking and scurrying across the table, and then running outside back to their barnyard roost. Upon witnessing this miracle, the judge fell to his knees in fearful penitence, and after begging the Lord for his forgiveness, he granted clemency to the parents’ beloved son.

 

  And it is the direct descendants of those two birds that are in the glass cages that we see across from St. Domingo’s tomb. They are maintained by the Confraternity of Santo Domingo in a special place called a gallinero; they are never eaten. Finding one of their feathers lying about the cathedral guarantees a successful completion of your pilgrimage. Also it is said that if the rooster crows while a pilgrim is in the church, those people who hear it are considered to have special favor in the eyes of St. James.

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                                               A história dos galos em Santo Domingo de la Calzada

 

  http://www.caminhodesantiago.com.br/walter/lendas/galos.htm

 

  O peregrino ao passar pela cidade de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, não poderá deixar de visitar a sua Catedral, pois, no seu interior, vamos encontrar um galinheiro, que faz lembrar uma das belas lendas existente no Caminho de Santiago.

 

  Contam que no século XIV, um jovem chamado Hugonell efetuava a sua peregrinação a Santiago de Compostela acompanhado pelos seus pais. Num dos albergues do caminho em que pernoitaram, o jovem mostrou-se indiferente às investidas de uma criada do mesmo, ela por vingança colocou em segredo uma taça de prata na bagagem do rapaz. Na manhã seguinte a mulher chamou os guardas e acusou Hogonell de furto. O rapaz foi julgado e condenado e em seguida enforcado. Porém quando os seus pais foram até o patíbulo para recolher o corpo, ouviram a voz de um anjo anunciando que Santo Domingo havia conservado a sua vida. Os pais do jovem imediatamente procuraram o juiz da cidade e pediram que o rapaz fosse liberado, pois estava vivo e de boa saúde. O juiz estava à mesa e com certa razão, não acreditou na história do casal. A sua incredulidade fê-lo exclamar: - Solto vosso filho quando este galo e esta galinha cantarem novamente – disse o juiz apontando os assados que tinha sobre a mesa.

 

  Nesse mesmo instante o galo e a galinha cobriram-se de penas e puseram a cacarejar e a cantar saindo correndo. O juiz soltou Hugonell. Desde esse dia, na igreja de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, um galo e uma galinha de penas brancas são mantidos vivos junto ao altar, num alambrado no estilo gótico tardio, coberto com uma tela renascentista que recebe o nome de “Gallinero”. Os mesmos são substituídos a cada 20 dias e somente ocupam o galinheiro no período de 25 de abril a 13 de outubro. Ao entrar na igreja, se você ouvir o galo cantar, é um sinal que a sua peregrinação será bem sucedida.

  Daí o ditado popular: “Santo Domingo de la Calzada, donde cantó la gallina depués de asada”.

 

  Existe uma outra versão fantasiosa, na qual os pais depois que o rapaz foi condenado as ser enforcado, tiveram uma grande dor, no entanto, continuaram a sua peregrinação a Santiago. Depois, no retornar ao seu país, passaram por Santo Domingo de la Calzada e foram ao local onde estava a forca para ver o seu filho e pedir a Deus por sua alma. Quando chegaram ao lado da mesma encontraram o rapaz vivo, questionado, informou aos pais ter um jovem varão segurado os seus pés de forma que nada viesse lhe acontecer.

 

  O milagre relatado se repete em várias cidades ao longo do Caminho de Santiago: em Toulouse, com a denominação de “le pendu dépendu” (milagre atribuído a San Amando ou a Santiago); em Barcelos, no “Caminho Português”, conhecido como “o senhor galo”; em Utrecht “Liber miraculorum” (livro segundo do “Liber Sancti lacobi”). Relata também Berceo nos “Milagres de Nuestra Sennora”; Alfonso X, “el Sabio”; nas “Cántigas de Santa María” e Jacobus de Voragine na “Legenda aurea”..

  

  Com todo esse conhecimento, não podemos atribuir a Santo Domingo de la Calzada este milagre, o qual é muitodiscutido e emblemático.

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                                                                           Hühnerwunder  

 

  Im zweiten Buch des "Codex Calixtus" wird von einem aus Deutschland stammenden Vater mit seinem Sohn auf dem Weg nach Santiago berichtet. (Nach der "Legenda aurea" soll dies im Jahre 1020 gewesen sein.) Der betrügerische Gastwirt, bei dem sie übernachtet hatten und einen silbernen Becher in ihr Gepäck geschmuggelt hatte, brachte sie mit der Beschuldigung, sie hätten ihn aus der Herberge gestohlen, vor den Richter. Der Junge wurde vom Richter verhört, für schuldig gesprochen und gehängt. Der hl. Jakobus hielt aber den Jungen am Leben, obwohl er 36 Tage gehangen hatte. Dann nämlich kehrte der Vater von Santiago wieder zurück und fand hier seinen immer noch lebenden Sohn. Nach dem "Codex Calixtus" soll sich dieses Wunder nahe bei der Kirche von Toulouse ereignet haben.

 

  Ab dem 15.Jh. wird diese als "Hühnerwunder" bekanntgewordene Legende von Toulouse nach San Domingo verlegt. Den deutschen Pilgern wird nun auch noch die Mutter hinzugefügt. Alle drei übernachten dort in der Herberge. In der Nacht schleicht die Tochter des Wirtes zum Sohn ins Bett und will ihn verführen. Dieser bleibt aber standhaft. Als Rache versteckt sie einen Silberbecher im Pilgerbeutel des Jungen. Dieser wird nun beschuldigt, den Becher gestohlen zu haben, vor den Richter gebracht, verurteilt und gehängt. Die zu Tode betrübten Eltern setzen ohne Sohn ihre Wallfahrt fort, klagen am Schrein des hl. Jakobus ihr Leid und kehren nach 36 Tagen wieder nach San Domingo zurück. Obwohl der Körper des Jungen noch immer am Galgen hängt spricht er doch: "Ich bin nicht tot, und Gott und sein Diener, der Heilige Jakobus, haben mein Leben gerettet. Darum bitte ich Euch, gehet hin zum Richter der Stadt und bittet ihn, herzukommen und mich herunterzulassen." Der Richter saß gerade beim Mittagstisch, ein gebratener Hahn und eine Henne vor sich auf dem Tisch. Er hörte sich die aufgeregten Eltern an und wehrte ab: "Euer Sohn, der dort seit 36 Tagen hängt, ist so tot wie diese zwei Hühner." Kaum hatte der Richter dies ausgesprochen, da erhoben sich die gebratenen Hühner und flogen flügelschlagend zum Fenster hinaus.

  

  Dieses "Hühnerwunder" ist das in Deutschland bekannteste und verbreitetste Jakobuswunder. Es ist Rothenburg und in Winnenden zu sehen, ebenso auf vielen Altarbildern, wie z.B. das in Kempen. 1903 wurde in Überlingen einer Jodokkapelle Fresken aus dem 15.Jh. entdeckt, die das Hühnerwunder als Bildergeschichte erzählen. Ein besonderes Kuriosum hierzu dürfte es in der Jakobuskapelle neben der alten Fuldaer Stiftskirche gewesen sein. In ihr soll "es bereits im 14.Jahrhundert einen Altar mit der Bezeichnung 'auf der Hünner Hort' gegeben haben. Es handelt sich wahrscheinlich um den Altar über einem Hühnerstall, der dem Hühnerkäfig in Santo Domingo de la Calzada wohl nachempfunden war.“

 

  In Spanien ist es der hl. Dominikus, der Brückenbauer, der im LSJ als erstes genannt ist, den es aufzusuchen gilt.

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                                                              Il miracolo del gallo e la gallina  

 

  Attorno al 1300, una copia marito e moglie di Colonia, in pellegrinaggio a Santiago con il loro giovane figlio poco più che adolescente, ma molto sveglio a quel che pare, presero alloggio nella locanda del paese. La figlia della locandiera si invaghì del giovane, ma questi per timore dei genitori, resistette alle sue seduzioni. La giovane allora, per vendetta, nascose nel sacco di lui un vaso d’argento e alla sua partenza, lo accusò di furto. Catturato, fu condannato a morte per impiccagione. I genitori distrutti dal dolore ma pieni di fede continuarono il loro pellegrinaggio.

 

  Di ritorno passarono per la stessa locanda dove trovarono il figlio vivo e vegeto. Questi raccontò loro che a salvarlo era stato proprio San Giacomo il quale durante l'esecuzione capitale lo sostenne per i piedi impedendo al capio di serrargli il collo. Il padre incredulo e convinto di essere stato turlupinato dal figlio desideroso solo di rimanere con la giovane locandiera, sentenziò che avrebbe prestato fede al suo racconto, solo se i due galletti arrostiti che gli erano stati serviti per la cena, e messi in bella mostra sulla tavola imbandita, fossero tornati anch'essi in vita. Subito i galletti si alzarono, ripresero le piume e si misero a cantare.

 

  Da allora un gallo e una gallina bianchi (oggi offerti da famiglie locali e sostituiti ogni 15 giorni) sono posti in una gabbia all’interno della chiesa. Nel medioevo i pellegrini ne raccoglievano le piume cadute e le esibivano sui loro cappelli. Oggi la gabbia è in stile tardo gotico, con rete dorata, in linea con lo stile della cattedrale. Quando un pellegrino entrato in chiesa, sente il canto del gallo è considerato di buon auspicio per il resto del viaggio fino a Santiago.

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                                                                     Het wonder van de haan en kip

 

  Het gebeurde in Santo Domingo de la Calzada, La Rioja.

 

  In de veertiende eeuw pelgrimstocht naar Compostela een jonge Duitse genaamd Hugonell 18, die wordt begeleid door hun ouders. In de herberg waar ze blijven werken een jong meisje die verliefd op hem en liefde nodig, waarop de jongen weigert. Geminacht en enthousiast om wraak opgeslagen in het zakje jonge een zilveren beker en vervolgens beschuldigd van diefstal.

 

  De jonge Hugonell en hun ouders moeten volgen van de bedevaart, toen rechtvaardigheid aankomt en controleer de beschuldiging registreren van de zak jongen. Het wordt schuldig bevonden en veroordeeld te hangen. Ouders kunnen niets doen voor hem, maar bidden naar Santiago. Het naderen van de opgehangen lichaam van zijn zoon afscheid te horen hoe het spreekt tot hen van de galg en vertelt hen dat hij in leven is door de genade van de Heilige.

 

  Gelukkig en tevreden zal het nieuws meedelen aan de corregidor dat juist toen een vogel is luxueus diner. De corregidor nature maakt plezier van wat je hoort en gooit de beroemde zin: "Uw zoon is net zo levend als de haan en de kip die ik op het punt stond pas eten importunarais me". En dan, de vogels springen van de plaat en start zingen en gekakel vrolijk.                        

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  retour à Q.Culture Histoire

              Le pendu dépendu 2.    

              Le pendu dépendu 3. études locales

              Le pendu dépendu 4. études générales

  

delhommeb at wanadoo.fr - 03/05/2015